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Aggiornato: 13 settimane 1 giorno fa

Mechanisms of airborne transmission

Gio, 26/08/2021 - 18:43

Moms IL-6 rewires babys gut immunity

Gio, 26/08/2021 - 18:43

Learning to unplug

Gio, 19/08/2021 - 18:44

Glaciohydrology of the Himalaya-Karakoram

Gio, 19/08/2021 - 18:44

Understanding the response of Himalayan-Karakoram (HK) rivers to climate change is crucial for ~1 billion people who partly depend on these water resources. Policy-makers tasked with sustainable water resources management require an assessment of the rivers’ current status and potential future changes. We show that glacier and snow melt are important components of HK rivers, with greater hydrological importance for the Indus basin than for the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins. Total river runoff, glacier melt, and seasonality of flow are projected to increase until the 2050s, with some exceptions and large uncertainties. Critical knowledge gaps severely affect modeled contributions of different runoff components, future runoff volumes, and seasonality. Therefore, comprehensive field observation–based and remote sensing–based methods and models are needed.

A DNA repair pathway can regulate transcriptional noise to promote cell fate transitions

Gio, 19/08/2021 - 18:44

Stochastic fluctuations in gene expression ("noise") are often considered detrimental, but fluctuations can also be exploited for benefit (e.g., dither). We show here that DNA base excision repair amplifies transcriptional noise to facilitate cellular reprogramming. Specifically, the DNA repair protein Apex1, which recognizes both naturally occurring and unnatural base modifications, amplifies expression noise while homeostatically maintaining mean expression levels. This amplified expression noise originates from shorter-duration, higher-intensity transcriptional bursts generated by Apex1-mediated DNA supercoiling. The remodeling of DNA topology first impedes and then accelerates transcription to maintain mean levels. This mechanism, which we refer to as "discordant transcription through repair" ("DiThR," which is pronounced "dither"), potentiates cellular reprogramming and differentiation. Our study reveals a potential functional role for transcriptional fluctuations mediated by DNA base modifications in embryonic development and disease.

Banking on protein structural data

Gio, 19/08/2021 - 18:44

News at a glance

Gio, 19/08/2021 - 18:44

Evolving threat

Gio, 19/08/2021 - 18:44