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Aggiornato: 13 settimane 1 giorno fa

Nonlocal spatiotemporal representation in the hippocampus of freely flying bats

Gio, 08/07/2021 - 18:40

Navigation occurs through a continuum of space and time. The hippocampus is known to encode the immediate position of moving animals. However, active navigation, especially at high speeds, may require representing navigational information beyond the present moment. Using wireless electrophysiological recordings in freely flying bats, we demonstrate that neural activity in area CA1 predominantly encodes nonlocal spatial information up to meters away from the bat’s present position. This spatiotemporal representation extends both forward and backward in time, with an emphasis on future locations, and is found during both random exploration and goal-directed navigation. The representation of position thus extends along a continuum, with each moment containing information about past, present, and future, and may provide a key mechanism for navigating along self-selected and remembered paths.

Standing my ground

Gio, 08/07/2021 - 18:40

Manipulating matter by strong coupling to vacuum fields

Gio, 08/07/2021 - 18:40

Over the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in the ability of hybrid light-matter states to control the properties of matter and chemical reactivity. Such hybrid states can be generated by simply placing a material in the spatially confined electromagnetic field of an optical resonator, such as that provided by two parallel mirrors. This occurs even in the dark because it is electromagnetic fluctuations of the cavity (the vacuum field) that strongly couple with the material. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that the mere presence of these hybrid states can enhance properties such as transport, magnetism, and superconductivity and modify (bio)chemical reactivity. This emerging field is highly multidisciplinary, and much of its potential has yet to be explored.

Estimating infectiousness throughout SARS-CoV-2 infection course

Gio, 08/07/2021 - 18:40

Two elementary parameters for quantifying viral infection and shedding are viral load and whether samples yield a replicating virus isolate in cell culture. We examined 25,381 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Germany, including 6110 from test centers attended by presymptomatic, asymptomatic, and mildly symptomatic (PAMS) subjects, 9519 who were hospitalized, and 1533 B.1.1.7 lineage infections. The viral load of the youngest subjects was lower than that of the older subjects by 0.5 (or fewer) log10 units, and they displayed an estimated ~78% of the peak cell culture replication probability; in part this was due to smaller swab sizes and unlikely to be clinically relevant. Viral loads above 109 copies per swab were found in 8% of subjects, one-third of whom were PAMS, with a mean age of 37.6 years. We estimate 4.3 days from onset of shedding to peak viral load (108.1 RNA copies per swab) and peak cell culture isolation probability (0.75). B.1.1.7 subjects had mean log10 viral load 1.05 higher than that of non-B.1.1.7 subjects, and the estimated cell culture replication probability of B.1.1.7 subjects was higher by a factor of 2.6.

Mapping the cellular origin and early evolution of leukemia in Down syndrome

Gio, 08/07/2021 - 18:40

Children with Down syndrome have a 150-fold increased risk of developing myeloid leukemia, but the mechanism of predisposition is unclear. Because Down syndrome leukemogenesis initiates during fetal development, we characterized the cellular and developmental context of preleukemic initiation and leukemic progression using gene editing in human disomic and trisomic fetal hematopoietic cells and xenotransplantation. GATA binding protein 1 (GATA1) mutations caused transient preleukemia when introduced into trisomy 21 long-term hematopoietic stem cells, where a subset of chromosome 21 microRNAs affected predisposition to preleukemia. By contrast, progression to leukemia was independent of trisomy 21 and originated in various stem and progenitor cells through additional mutations in cohesin genes. CD117+/KIT proto-oncogene (KIT) cells mediated the propagation of preleukemia and leukemia, and KIT inhibition targeted preleukemic stem cells.