Riviste scientifiche

A century of progress

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Preventing type 1 diabetes in childhood

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas are destroyed by T lymphocytes. Recent studies have demonstrated that monitoring for pancreatic islet autoantibodies, combined with genetic risk assessment, can identify most children who will develop T1D when they still have sufficient β cell function to control glucose concentrations without the need for insulin. In addition, there has been recent success in secondary prevention using immunotherapy to delay the progression of preclinical disease, and primary prevention approaches to inhibiting the initiating autoimmune process have entered large-scale clinical trials. By changing the focus of T1D management from late diagnosis and insulin replacement to early diagnosis and β cell preservation, we can anticipate a future without the need for daily insulin injections for children with T1D.

Immunotherapy: Building a bridge to a cure for type 1 diabetes

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing β cells in the pancreatic islets. Genetic and environmental factors increase T1D risk by compromising immune homeostasis. Although the discovery and use of insulin have transformed T1D treatment, insulin therapy does not change the underlying disease or fully prevent complications. Over the past two decades, research has identified multiple immune cell types and soluble factors that destroy insulin-producing β cells. These insights into disease pathogenesis have enabled the development of therapies to prevent and modify T1D. In this review, we highlight the key events that initiate and sustain pancreatic islet inflammation in T1D, the current state of the immunological therapies, and their advantages for the treatment of T1D.

Strategies for durable {beta} cell replacement in type 1 diabetes

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Technological advancements in blood glucose monitoring and therapeutic insulin administration have improved the quality of life for people with type 1 diabetes. However, these efforts fall short of replicating the exquisite metabolic control provided by native islets. We examine the integrated advancements in islet cell replacement and immunomodulatory therapies that are coalescing to enable the restoration of endogenous glucose regulation. We highlight advances in stem cell biology and graft site design, which offer innovative sources of cellular material and improved engraftment. We also cover cutting-edge approaches for preventing allograft rejection and recurrent autoimmunity. These insights reflect a growing understanding of type 1 diabetes etiology, β cell biology, and biomaterial design, together highlighting therapeutic opportunities to durably replace the β cells destroyed in type 1 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes glycemic management: Insulin therapy, glucose monitoring, and automation

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Despite innovations in insulin therapy since its discovery, most patients living with type 1 diabetes do not achieve sufficient glycemic control to prevent complications, and they experience hypoglycemia, weight gain, and major self-care burden. Promising pharmacological advances in insulin therapy include the refinement of extremely rapid insulin analogs, alternate insulin-delivery routes, liver-selective insulins, add-on drugs that enhance insulin effect, and glucose-responsive insulin molecules. The greatest future impact will come from combining these pharmacological solutions with existing automated insulin delivery methods that integrate insulin pumps and glucose sensors. These systems will use algorithms enhanced by machine learning, supplemented by technologies that include activity monitors and sensors for other key metabolites such as ketones. The future challenges facing clinicians and researchers will be those of access and broad clinical implementation.

Plant cell growth regulation

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

A reconfigurable spin ice

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Topology in higher dimensions

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

A cooler tin selenide

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Repairing the nuclear pore in ALS

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Sweat out the fat with TSLP!

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

The Long Covid pandemic

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Back to the future phage

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41

Evening out the heat

Science - Gio, 29/07/2021 - 18:41