Riviste scientifiche

Entangling logical qubits with lattice surgery

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03079-6

Two logical qubits are encoded in ensembles of four physical qubits through the surface code, then entangled by lattice surgery, which is a protocol for carrying out fault-tolerant operations.

Loop extrusion mediates physiological <i>Igh</i> locus contraction for RAG scanning

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03121-7

Long-distance V(D)J recombination is facilitated by contraction of the Igh locus and linear RAG scanning along chromatin, both driven by cohesin-mediated loop extrusion, which allows recombination of widely separated gene segments to occur.

Functional refolding of the penetration protein on a non-enveloped virus

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03124-4

Electron cryomicroscopy and cryotomography studies reveal that rotaviruses attach to a target cell through the outer-layer protein VP4, which—following cleavage—rearranges to enable perforation of the membrane and delivery of the viral genome into the host cell.

Rapid spectral variability of a giant flare from a magnetar in NGC 253

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03077-8

Observations of a giant flare associated with the starburst galaxy NGC 253 suggest that the flare is probably associated with relativistic plasma in the magnetic field of a magnetar.

Chaperone-mediated autophagy sustains haematopoietic stem-cell function

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03129-z

Haematopoietic stem cells show progressive functional decline with age that can be reversed by stimulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy in old mice and aged humans.

Structure and function of a neocortical synapse

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03134-2

Electrophysiology combined with correlated light and electron microscopy confirms the long-standing assumption that the size of a synapse is proportional to its strength, and reveals that neocortical synapses may have greater computational capacity than thought.

Dire wolves were the last of an ancient New World canid lineage

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03082-x

Dire wolves split from living canids around 5.7 million years ago and originated in the New World isolated from the ancestors of grey wolves and coyotes, which evolved in Eurasia and colonized North America only relatively recently.

Antarctic icebergs reorganize ocean circulation during Pleistocene glacials

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03094-7

Iceberg-trajectory models along with multi-proxy evidence from sediment cores from the Indian Ocean show that northward shifts in Antarctic iceberg melt redistributed freshwater in the Southern Ocean during the Pleistocene.

Local immune response to food antigens drives meal-induced abdominal pain

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03118-2

In mice, oral tolerance to food antigens can break down after enteric infection, and this leads to food-induced pain resembling irritable bowel syndrome in humans.

Patterns of de novo tandem repeat mutations and their role in autism

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03078-7

A bioinformatics pipeline to identify tandem repeat mutations is developed and used to characterize precise changes in repeat copy number associated with autism spectrum disorder.

STING controls nociception via type I interferon signalling in sensory neurons

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03151-1

Studies using mouse and non-human primate models identify the innate immune regulator STING—acting via type I interferons—as a key regulator of nociception, suggesting new targets for the treatment of chronic pain.

My 11 part-time jobs made me a better PhD student

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00089-w

Waitressing, bartending and tutoring stole time from my academic studies, but I picked up transferable skills that still serve me well, says Cassie Sims.

Why a pioneering plan to distribute COVID vaccines equitably must succeed

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00044-9

COVAX is key to both immunizing the world’s poorest people and ending the pandemic.

Repeat DNA expands our understanding of autism spectrum disorder

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03658-7

A link has been found between repetitive stretches of DNA called tandem repeats and autism spectrum disorder. The discovery might inform approaches to studying tandem repeats in a wide range of other human disorders.

Tiny robots and sensors need tiny batteries — here’s how to do it

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00021-2

Improve materials and architectures to shrink microscopic devices.

The dream cartel

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00061-8

A date to remember.

Giant photon avalanches observed in nanoparticles

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03659-6

In some materials, the absorption of a single photon can trigger a chain reaction that produces a large burst of light. The discovery of these photon avalanches in nanostructures opens the way to imaging and sensing applications.

Food for thought about the immune drivers of gut pain

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03661-y

Debilitating gut pain is common, but the underlying cause is often unclear. It emerges that gut infection triggers localized immune responses that cause normally innocuous foods to be perceived as harmful, leading to persistent pain.

Cosmic electromagnetic bomb sheds light on the origins of γ-ray bursts

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03657-8

Celestial eruptions known as giant magnetar flares have been seen in our cosmic backyard, but were so bright they blinded observational instruments. The discovery of a more distant flare finally reveals details of these emissions.

The secret forces that squeeze and pull life into shape

Nature - Mer, 13/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00018-x

Scientists are getting to grips with the role of mechanical forces in the body, from embryo to adult.