Riviste scientifiche

An endogenous opioid circuit determines state-dependent reward consumption

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04013-0

Studies in mice show that µ-opioid peptide receptor regulation of reward consumption in mice acts through a specific dorsal raphe to nucleus accumbens projection and requires enkephalin-producing neurons.

A neuroanatomical basis for electroacupuncture to drive the vagal–adrenal axis

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04001-4

Neuroanatomical findings demonstrate why electroactupuncture at only specific acupoints can drive the vagal–adrenal axis and treat inflammation in mice.

Leprosy in wild chimpanzees

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03968-4

Monitoring of western chimpanzee populations in Guinea-Bissau and Côte d’Ivoire reveals the presence of rare and different genotypes of Mycobacterium leprae, suggesting greater circulation in wild animals than previously thought.

A Jovian analogue orbiting a white dwarf star

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03869-6

The authors show not only that planetary bodies around white dwarfs can survive but also that more than half of white dwarfs might have Jovian planetary companions.

Structure of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in complex with the LDLRAD3 receptor

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03963-9

The structure of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in complex with LDLRAD3 provides insights into the structural basis of alphavirus–receptor interactions.

Systems-level effects of allosteric perturbations to a model molecular switch

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03982-6

Interface mutations in the GTPase switch protein Gsp1 (the yeast homologue of human RAN) allosterically affect the kinetics of the switch cycle, revealing a systems-level mechanism of multi-specificity.

Estimating a social cost of carbon for global energy consumption

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03883-8

Using global data, econometrics and climate science to estimate the damages induced by the emission of one ton of carbon dioxide, climate change is projected to increase electricity spending but reduce overall end-use energy expenditure.

Structural basis of cytokine-mediated activation of ALK family receptors

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03959-5

Structural studies of the complex of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and leukocyte tyrosine kinase and their activating cytokines identify unique architectural features of the complex, and provide a novel mechanistic paradigm among receptor tyrosine kinases.

The cellular environment shapes the nuclear pore complex architecture

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03985-3

Structure of human nuclear pore complex in its cellular environment reveals a substantially dilated central channel and shows that its nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic rings restrict channel dimensions and create membrane asymmetry at the inner ring.

Parallelism of intestinal secretory IgA shapes functional microbial fitness

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03973-7

The functional role of intestinal secretory IgA for host–microbiota interactions is investigated, showing that intestinal bacterial exposure leads to selection of diverse plasma cells that secrete antigen-specific IgA, which predominantly targets bacterial membranes.

Neural control of affiliative touch in prosocial interaction

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03962-w

Neurons in the medial amygdala regulate prosocial comforting behaviour towards distressed social partners in mice.

Superior robustness of anomalous non-reciprocal topological edge states

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03868-7

The physics of oriented topological graphs produces anomalous non-reciprocal topological edge states that have greater robustness to disorder and defects than the best performers at present: namely, Chern states.

Unravelling the collateral damage of antibiotics on gut bacteria

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03986-2

This study systematically profiles the activity of several classes of antibiotics on gut commensal bacteria and identifies drugs that mitigate their collateral damage on commensal bacteria without compromising their efficacy against pathogens.

How AI is helping the natural sciences

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02762-6

Collaborations across disciplines are growing, and artificial intelligence is helping to make joint working more effective.

‘I hope you die’: how the COVID pandemic unleashed attacks on scientists

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02741-x

Dozens of researchers tell Nature they have received death threats, or threats of physical or sexual violence.

Path correction

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02765-3

In the midst of chaos.

Venus might never have been habitable

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02720-2

A sophisticated climate model suggests that liquid-water oceans never formed on Venus, and that some planets outside the Solar System that were thought to be habitable might not be.

A two-step hormone-signalling mechanism that drives physical activity

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02725-x

In mice, the ovarian hormone oestradiol sensitizes neurons in a brain region called the hypothalamus to a melanocortin hormone that signals an energy surplus. Their dual activation increases physical activity.

Burnt seeds show people used tobacco 12,000 years ago

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02789-9

The earliest evidence that Stone Age hunter-gatherers chewed or smoked the plant have been discovered among the remains of an ancient fire.

Vaccines and Delta, Moon volcanism and an NIH departure

Nature - Mer, 13/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 13 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02759-1

The latest science news, in brief.