Riviste scientifiche

Researcher careers under the microscope: salary satisfaction and COVID impacts

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03537-9

The Nature salary and satisfaction survey reveals researchers' outlook, and NASA’s test of planetary defences.

Video: Babies with misshapen hearts

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03519-x

Babies born with one small or malformed ventricle can be treated with a series of surgeries, but new techniques could allow doctors to begin treatment from within the womb.

Artificial heavy fermions in a van der Waals heterostructure

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04021-0

A study demonstrates the synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructure hosting artificial heavy fermions, providing a tunable platform for investigations of heavy-fermion physics.

ecDNA hubs drive cooperative intermolecular oncogene expression

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04116-8

Extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) congregates in clusters called ecDNA hubs that promote intermolecular interactions between gene-regulatory regions and thereby amplify the expression of oncogenes such as MYC in cancer cell lines.

The CLIP1–LTK fusion is an oncogenic driver in non‐small‐cell lung cancer

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04135-5

Whole-transcriptome sequencing of a subset of 75 non-small-cell lung cancer specimens in a multi-institutional genome screening study identified a fusion of the CLIP1 and LTK genes with transformational potential due to constitutive LTK kinase activity.

Ultrahard bulk amorphous carbon from collapsed fullerene

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03882-9

Preparing amorphous phases of carbon with mostly sp3 bonding in bulk is challenging, but macroscopic samples that are nearly pure sp3 are synthesized here by heating fullerenes at high pressure.

Electron-beam energy reconstruction for neutrino oscillation measurements

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04046-5

Electron scattering measurements are shown to reproduce only qualitatively state-of-the-art lepton–nucleus energy reconstruction models, indicating that improvements to these particle-interaction models are required to ensure the accuracy of future high-precision neutrino oscillation experiments.

<i>Fam72a</i> enforces error-prone DNA repair during antibody diversification

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04093-y

FAM72A interacts with UNG2 to regulate the balance between error-prone and error-free DNA repair.

Aldehyde-driven transcriptional stress triggers an anorexic DNA damage response

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04133-7

Endogenous formaldehyde accumulation reveals Cockayne syndrome in mice and stimulates production of the anorexiogenic peptide GDF15 in proximal tubule cells.

The human microbiome encodes resistance to the antidiabetic drug acarbose

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04091-0

Bacteria in the human gut and oral microbiome encode enzymes that selectively phosphorylate the antidiabetic drug acarbose—an inhibitor of both human and bacterial α-glucosidases—resulting in its inactivation and limiting the drug's effects on the ability of the host to metabolize complex carbohydrates.

Contextual inference underlies the learning of sensorimotor repertoires

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04129-3

A theory of motor learning based on the principle of contextual inference reveals that adaptation can arise by both creating and updating memories and changing how existing memories are differentially expressed, and predicts evoked recovery and context-dependent single-trial learning.

Mechanism for the activation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04140-8

Cryo-electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography are used to provide structural and mechanistic details of the activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase by the ligands ALKAL1 and ALKAL2.

On-chip electro-optic frequency shifters and beam splitters

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03999-x

Engineering of the coupling between optical modes in a lithium niobate chip enables the realization of tunable, bi-directional and low-loss electro-optic frequency shifters controlled using only continuous and single-tone microwaves.

Quantum gas magnifier for sub-lattice-resolved imaging of 3D quantum systems

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04011-2

Existing techniques for high-resolution imaging of trapped quantum gases are limited to two-dimensional systems, but the approach described here works in three dimensions by magnifying the quantum gas with matter wave optics.

Mechanical forcing of the North American monsoon by orography

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03978-2

The core North American monsoon arises through topographic steering of the jet stream, and should be considered as convection-enhanced orographic rainfall produced by a mechanically forced stationary wave.

Synthesis of paracrystalline diamond

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04122-w

A study describes the synthesis, structural characterization and formation mechanism of a paracrystalline state of diamond, adding an unusual form of diamond to the family of carbon-based materials.

IL-27 signalling promotes adipocyte thermogenesis and energy expenditure

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04127-5

Therapeutic administration of IL-27—serum levels of which are decreased in individuals with obesity—improves thermogenesis, protects against diet-induced obesity and ameliorates insulin resistance in mouse models of obesity.

Colossal angular magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic nodal-line semiconductors

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04028-7

A study reports a colossal angular magnetoresistance in the topological magnet Mn3Si2Te6, resulting from a metal-to-insulator transition caused by controlled lifting of a topological band degeneracy, and discusses the key parameters involved.

A multi-scale map of cell structure fusing protein images and interactions

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04115-9

Protein immunofluorescence imaging and affinity purification–mass spectrometry are combined to create a unified map of human cell architecture across scales, which the authors call the multi-scale integrated cell (MuSIC).

Distribution control enables efficient reduced-dimensional perovskite LEDs

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03997-z

The efficiency and operating lifetimes of perovskite light-emitting diodes is improved by using a fluorinated triphenylphosphine oxide additive to control the cation diffusion during film deposition and passivate the surface.