Riviste scientifiche

Contextual inference underlies the learning of sensorimotor repertoires

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04129-3

A theory of motor learning based on the principle of contextual inference reveals that adaptation can arise by both creating and updating memories and changing how existing memories are differentially expressed, and predicts evoked recovery and context-dependent single-trial learning.

Mechanism for the activation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04140-8

Cryo-electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography are used to provide structural and mechanistic details of the activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase by the ligands ALKAL1 and ALKAL2.

On-chip electro-optic frequency shifters and beam splitters

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03999-x

Engineering of the coupling between optical modes in a lithium niobate chip enables the realization of tunable, bi-directional and low-loss electro-optic frequency shifters controlled using only continuous and single-tone microwaves.

Quantum gas magnifier for sub-lattice-resolved imaging of 3D quantum systems

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04011-2

Existing techniques for high-resolution imaging of trapped quantum gases are limited to two-dimensional systems, but the approach described here works in three dimensions by magnifying the quantum gas with matter wave optics.

Mechanical forcing of the North American monsoon by orography

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03978-2

The core North American monsoon arises through topographic steering of the jet stream, and should be considered as convection-enhanced orographic rainfall produced by a mechanically forced stationary wave.

Synthesis of paracrystalline diamond

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04122-w

A study describes the synthesis, structural characterization and formation mechanism of a paracrystalline state of diamond, adding an unusual form of diamond to the family of carbon-based materials.

IL-27 signalling promotes adipocyte thermogenesis and energy expenditure

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04127-5

Therapeutic administration of IL-27—serum levels of which are decreased in individuals with obesity—improves thermogenesis, protects against diet-induced obesity and ameliorates insulin resistance in mouse models of obesity.

Colossal angular magnetoresistance in ferrimagnetic nodal-line semiconductors

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04028-7

A study reports a colossal angular magnetoresistance in the topological magnet Mn3Si2Te6, resulting from a metal-to-insulator transition caused by controlled lifting of a topological band degeneracy, and discusses the key parameters involved.

A multi-scale map of cell structure fusing protein images and interactions

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04115-9

Protein immunofluorescence imaging and affinity purification–mass spectrometry are combined to create a unified map of human cell architecture across scales, which the authors call the multi-scale integrated cell (MuSIC).

Distribution control enables efficient reduced-dimensional perovskite LEDs

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03997-z

The efficiency and operating lifetimes of perovskite light-emitting diodes is improved by using a fluorinated triphenylphosphine oxide additive to control the cation diffusion during film deposition and passivate the surface.

Structural basis for ligand reception by anaplastic lymphoma kinase

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04141-7

Analysis of crystal structures of anaplastic lymphoma kinase elucidate the mechanism by which ligand binding and the glycine-rich domain regulate its activity.

Mechanical actions of dendritic-spine enlargement on presynaptic exocytosis

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04125-7

A mechanism of mechanosensation and transduction in the presynaptic boutons is identified, in which sensing of fine pressure leads to enhanced neurotransmitter release.

FAM72A antagonizes UNG2 to promote mutagenic repair during antibody maturation

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04144-4

FAM72A differentially controls mutation rates by regulating uracil processing at different stages of the cell cycle, thereby regulating somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination in B cells.

Electrons reveal the need for improved neutrino models

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03456-9

Experiments on electrons interacting with atomic nuclei have shown that the models used to measure neutrino oscillations — and thereby possibly to understand the formation of the Universe — are less accurate than we thought.

Context is key for learning motor skills

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03028-x

A sophisticated theory for learning motor skills places emphasis on the need for inferring context — drawing conclusions about the structure of the environment — for efficiently storing and expressing motor memories.

Forceful synapses reveal mechanical interactions in the brain

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03516-0

Communication between neurons in the brain is generally associated with electrochemical signalling. Here we reveal that neurons can also communicate through the force generated by the enlargement of dendritic spines. This force is comparable to that of muscle contraction and might underlie learning and memory, suggesting that brain function is more mechanical than was previously thought.

How to make macroscale non-crystalline diamonds

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02957-x

A diamond shatters easily, despite it being the hardest natural material. Atomically disordered forms of diamond made from buckyballs might not only overcome this problem, but also allow other properties to be optimized.

The N501Y spike substitution enhances SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04245-0

The N501Y spike substitution enhances SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission

Hard times tear coupled seabirds apart

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03509-z

Even birds get divorced, and, as in humans, resource constraints can drive more couples to the brink.

Want research integrity? Stop the blame game

Nature - Mer, 24/11/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 24 November 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03493-4

Helping every scientist to improve is more effective than ferreting out a few frauds.