Riviste scientifiche

Untwisted trilayer graphene hosts superconductivity and magnetism

Nature - Mar, 19/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 19 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02773-3

Superconductivity and magnetism have been observed in layered graphene in which the sheets are twisted with respect to each other. But a simpler, more stable graphene system also exhibits these phases.

The Trick review: How the Climategate scandal rocked the world

New Scientist - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 22:00
The Trick on the BBC is a dramatisation of the Climategate scandal, when researchers were wrongly accused of faking evidence of global warming. The film is a correction of the record and evidence that it isn't too late to make up for lost time

IVF embryos discarded as 'abnormal' can actually become healthy babies

New Scientist - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 16:41
One in four embryos made via IVF contain some seemingly abnormal cells and are typically considered too risky to use, but new research shows they are just as viable

Food biodiversity and total and cause-specific mortality in 9 European countries: An analysis of a prospective cohort study

PLoS Medicine - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 16:00

by Giles T. Hanley-Cook, Inge Huybrechts, Carine Biessy, Roseline Remans, Gina Kennedy, Mélanie Deschasaux-Tanguy, Kris A. Murray, Mathilde Touvier, Guri Skeie, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Alemayehu Argaw, Corinne Casagrande, Geneviève Nicolas, Paolo Vineis, Christopher J. Millett, Elisabete Weiderpass, Pietro Ferrari, Christina C. Dahm, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Torkjel M. Sandanger, Daniel B. Ibsen, Heinz Freisling, Stina Ramne, Franziska Jannasch, Yvonne T. van der Schouw, Matthias B. Schulze, Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Anne Tjønneland, Eva Ardanaz, Stina Bodén, Lluís Cirera, Giuliana Gargano, Jytte Halkjær, Paula Jakszyn, Ingegerd Johansson, Verena Katzke, Giovanna Masala, Salvatore Panico, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Carlotta Sacerdote, Bernard Srour, Rosario Tumino, Elio Riboli, Marc J. Gunter, Andrew D. Jones, Carl Lachat

Background

Food biodiversity, encompassing the variety of plants, animals, and other organisms consumed as food and drink, has intrinsic potential to underpin diverse, nutritious diets and improve Earth system resilience. Dietary species richness (DSR), which is recommended as a crosscutting measure of food biodiversity, has been positively associated with the micronutrient adequacy of diets in women and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the relationships between DSR and major health outcomes have yet to be assessed in any population.

Methods and findings

We examined the associations between DSR and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 451,390 adults enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study (1992 to 2014, median follow-up: 17 years), free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack, or stroke at baseline. Usual dietary intakes were assessed at recruitment with country-specific dietary questionnaires (DQs). DSR of an individual’s yearly diet was calculated based on the absolute number of unique biological species in each (composite) food and drink. Associations were assessed by fitting multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. In the EPIC cohort, 2 crops (common wheat and potato) and 2 animal species (cow and pig) accounted for approximately 45% of self-reported total dietary energy intake [median (P10–P90): 68 (40 to 83) species consumed per year]. Overall, higher DSR was inversely associated with all-cause mortality rate. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing total mortality in the second, third, fourth, and fifth (highest) quintiles (Qs) of DSR to the first (lowest) Q indicate significant inverse associations, after stratification by sex, age, and study center and adjustment for smoking status, educational level, marital status, physical activity, alcohol intake, and total energy intake, Mediterranean diet score, red and processed meat intake, and fiber intake [HR (95% CI): 0.91 (0.88 to 0.94), 0.80 (0.76 to 0.83), 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72), and 0.63 (0.59 to 0.66), respectively; PWald < 0.001 for trend]. Absolute death rates among participants in the highest and lowest fifth of DSR were 65.4 and 69.3 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Significant inverse associations were also observed between DSR and deaths due to cancer, heart disease, digestive disease, and respiratory disease. An important study limitation is that our findings were based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through single baseline food frequency questionnaires (FFQs); thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out.

Conclusions

In this large Pan-European cohort, higher DSR was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality, independent of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other known dietary risk factors. Our findings support the potential of food (species) biodiversity as a guiding principle of sustainable dietary recommendations and food-based dietary guidelines.

Modeling the epidemiological impact of the UNAIDS 2025 targets to end AIDS as a public health threat by 2030

PLoS Medicine - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 16:00

by John Stover, Robert Glaubius, Yu Teng, Sherrie Kelly, Tim Brown, Timothy B. Hallett, Paul Revill, Till Bärnighausen, Andrew N. Phillips, Christopher Fontaine, Luisa Frescura, Jose Antonio Izazola-Licea, Iris Semini, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Paul R. De Lay, Adèle Schwartz Benzaken, Peter D. Ghys

Background

UNAIDS has established new program targets for 2025 to achieve the goal of eliminating AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. This study reports on efforts to use mathematical models to estimate the impact of achieving those targets.

Methods and findings

We simulated the impact of achieving the targets at country level using the Goals model, a mathematical simulation model of HIV epidemic dynamics that includes the impact of prevention and treatment interventions. For 77 high-burden countries, we fit the model to surveillance and survey data for 1970 to 2020 and then projected the impact of achieving the targets for the period 2019 to 2030. Results from these 77 countries were extrapolated to produce estimates for 96 others. Goals model results were checked by comparing against projections done with the Optima HIV model and the AIDS Epidemic Model (AEM) for selected countries. We included estimates of the impact of societal enablers (access to justice and law reform, stigma and discrimination elimination, and gender equality) and the impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results show that achieving the 2025 targets would reduce new annual infections by 83% (71% to 86% across regions) and AIDS-related deaths by 78% (67% to 81% across regions) by 2025 compared to 2010. Lack of progress on societal enablers could endanger these achievements and result in as many as 2.6 million (44%) cumulative additional new HIV infections and 440,000 (54%) more AIDS-related deaths between 2020 and 2030 compared to full achievement of all targets. COVID-19–related disruptions could increase new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 10% in the next 2 years, but targets could still be achieved by 2025. Study limitations include the reliance on self-reports for most data on behaviors, the use of intervention effect sizes from published studies that may overstate intervention impacts outside of controlled study settings, and the use of proxy countries to estimate the impact in countries with fewer than 4,000 annual HIV infections.

Conclusions

The new targets for 2025 build on the progress made since 2010 and represent ambitious short-term goals. Achieving these targets would bring us close to the goals of reducing new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% between 2010 and 2030. By 2025, global new infections and AIDS deaths would drop to 4.4 and 3.9 per 100,000 population, and the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) would be declining. There would be 32 million people on treatment, and they would need continuing support for their lifetime. Incidence for the total global population would be below 0.15% everywhere. The number of PLHIV would start declining by 2023.

This koala was first to be vaccinated against chlamydia in new trial

New Scientist - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 13:17
Shano was the first of 200 koalas to receive a chlamydia vaccine that may help curb an epidemic that is ravaging koala populations across Australia

Covid-19 news: Valneva reports positive results from vaccine trial

New Scientist - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 12:58
The latest coronavirus news updated every day including coronavirus cases, the latest news, features and interviews from New Scientist and essential information about the covid-19 pandemic

Microsoft and Nvidia build largest ever AI to mimic human language

New Scientist - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 12:10
An artificial intelligence with more than 530 billion parameters - the largest ever - has achieved record scores at understanding human language

How ancient reptiles were streamlined for flight

Nature - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 18 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02822-x

Pterosaurs, which soared overhead while dinosaurs stomped the land, had muscles that provided an aerodynamic profile.

Daily briefing: The environmental conflict heating up in low-Earth orbit

Nature - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 18 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02856-1

As companies fill low-Earth orbit with thousands of satellites, it's becoming a new region of environmental dissent. Plus, tips for writing a popular-science book, and a super-precise measure of the neutron’s lifetime leaves a mystery unsolved.

Exome sequencing and analysis of 454,787 UK Biobank participants

Nature - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 18 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04103-z

Exome sequencing and analysis of 454,787 UK Biobank participants

Climate change means thin ice for lakes worldwide

Nature - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 18 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02819-6

Study of lakes around the globe ties changes in ice coverage to human-induced warming.

Saving hawksbill sea turtles from rats, cats and Hurricane Ida

Nature - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 18 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02851-6

Hatching season on the Caribbean island of Barbados is a busy time for Carla Daniel.

How cigarettes became a civil-rights issue

Nature - Lun, 18/10/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 18 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02849-0

Tobacco companies still profit from decades of marketing to Black Americans.

[Editorial] Malaria vaccine approval: a step change for global health

The Lancet - Sab, 16/10/2021 - 00:00
On Oct 6, WHO announced that it will be recommending widespread use of the RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) malaria vaccine for children in sub-Saharan Africa and in other regions with moderate-to-high Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Malaria has ravaged people's lives for centuries; today the burden falls disproportionately on children in tropical regions. 229 million cases were recorded in 2019, and 409 000 people lost their lives, two-thirds of whom were younger than 5 years and living in sub-Saharan Africa.

[Comment] Developing COVID-19 vaccine policy in increments

The Lancet - Sab, 16/10/2021 - 00:00
Over the past several months, there has been fierce debate in the public domain as to whether booster vaccinations are needed to sustain vaccine-induced immunological protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.1 Discussions in medical journals, news outlets, social media, and among the wider public have been robust but limited owing to the paucity of data for the breadth and durability of existing vaccines.

[Comment] Offline: The generation of ghosts

The Lancet - Sab, 16/10/2021 - 00:00
What happened to our ambition for a different, better world? One has to go back to World War 2 to find a time when our species faced a catastrophe on the scale of this COVID-19 pandemic. In the early 1940s, there were some observers of the mounting global chaos who recognised a need to create a new world order. In England, two writers stood out, and their far-reaching visions contrast sharply with the surprising lack of aspiration shown by my generation today.

[World Report] An interview with the Nobel Prize 2021 winners

The Lancet - Sab, 16/10/2021 - 00:00
Talha Burki speaks with Ardem Patapoutian and David Julius, winners of the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of the receptors for temperature and touch.

[World Report] Cautious optimism for malaria vaccine roll-out

The Lancet - Sab, 16/10/2021 - 00:00
The approval of a vaccine for malaria is a milestone in global health, but challenges remain. Udani Samarasekera reports.

[World Report] Syria and Iraq facing severe drought

The Lancet - Sab, 16/10/2021 - 00:00
Climate change and conflict are driving a humanitarian emergency that threatens 12 million people. Sharmila Devi reports.