Riviste scientifiche

Joe Biden names top geneticist Eric Lander as science adviser

Nature - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00

Nature, Published online: 16 January 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00118-8

US president-elect also elevates the position to the cabinet for the first time.

[Editorial] An opportunity for American renewal

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
The Trump era is drawing to a chaotic close. The events of Jan 6, 2021—when a mob, provoked by President Donald Trump minutes before, stormed the US Capitol Building and forced Congress to flee and take shelter—shocked the world. The refusal to accept the results of a legitimate election and the use of social media to baselessly attack election officials and to sow distrust in democracy are all emblematic of what will be Trump's turbulent legacy. That legacy imperils the health of Americans and the world.

[Comment] Risk scores in predicting adverse events following acute coronary syndrome

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
Complications from both ischaemia and bleeding negatively influence the outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Antithrombotic treatment of patients with ACS primarily aims to minimise ischaemic complications. However, the intensity and duration of antithrombotic therapy are directly related to bleeding.1 Balancing these risks is challenging for cardiologists. Prompt and accurate risk stratification is crucial to establish the ideal antithrombotic treatment for each patient.

[Comment] Offline: The Paris Commune and the birth of American medicine

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
The tumultuous events of the Paris Commune, whose 150th anniversary will be commemorated on March 18, 2021, created the conditions for the birth of modern scientific medicine in the US. This origin story for a progressive medical science has largely been erased from the annals of American medical history. But at a moment of presidential transition amid constitutional chaos, at a time when the narrow nationalism of the past 4 years is now giving way to a more capacious vision for America's purpose and role in the world, the connections between the Paris Commune and American medicine deserve to be retraced.

[World Report] New leadership at the US CDC

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
Rochelle Walensky, an infectious diseases expert, promises to provide transparency, accountability, and restored trust at the embattled organisation. Susan Jaffe reports from Washington, DC.

[World Report] COVID-19 highlights Canada's care home crisis

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
COVID-19 deaths in long-term care have been called a national disgrace, and experts are calling for the army to intervene. Paul Webster reports from Toronto.

[World Report] Expanding HIV-positive organ donation

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
HIV-positive donor organs are increasingly being given to people with HIV on transplant waiting lists. Now, the UK is considering them for HIV-negative patients too. Jacqui Thornton reports.

[Perspectives] Anne Johnson: Dame of public health epidemiology

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
In December, 2020, Dame Anne Johnson became the new President of the UK Academy of Medical Sciences (AMS), an appropriate appointment for a leading epidemiologist whose stellar career stretches back 35 years. Last year, Johnson co-launched Health of the Public—a virtual school that seeks to synergise research across specialties at her academic home University College London (UCL), UK, where she is Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology. “Health of the Public epitomises everything that is so rich at UCL, bringing together a community of expertise across many fields, including engineering, climate science, anthropology, law, and economics, in order to take a much broader view—for example, of the impact of COVID-19, and how we should approach our future health”, she says.

[Perspectives] Racism and caste: lessons for the USA

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
The year 2020 highlighted how the US race problem endures with lethal impact. Revved up by outgoing President Donald Trump who veered toward openly white supremacist statements, racial divisions took a still more deadly turn as COVID-19 left disproportionate numbers of African American, Latinx, and Indigenous people among the sick and dying. This excess COVID-19 mortality is not modest. Compared with white people, the risk of death from COVID-19 for Black people increased about three-fold, and is even higher among young to middle-aged adults.

[Perspectives] Is it possible to decolonise global health institutions?

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
In the past year, decolonising global health has gained prominence. Much of this movement has come from students of global health in high-income countries and preceded the recurrence of Black Lives Matter movements after the violent murder of George Floyd. Black Lives Matter and Decolonising Global Health movements have managed to shake schools of global health if not to their core then at least awake. As a reaction schools of global health have made statements about racial equality and have avowed to address racism, increase staff and student diversity, and to train their staff in the art of decolonisation.

[Obituary] Mary Fowkes

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
Neuropathologist who did autopsies of COVID-19 patients early in the pandemic. Born on Nov 1, 1954, in Clayton, NY, USA, she died of a heart attack on Nov 15, 2020, in Katonah, NY, USA, aged 66 years.

[Correspondence] Global tuberculosis awards must do better with equity, diversity, and inclusion

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
Nobel Prizes in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related fields have been overwhelmingly awarded to men.1 Similarly, major awards in global health, such as The John Dirks Canada Gairdner Global Health Award and the Prince Mahidol Award, have been awarded predominantly to men working in high-income countries (HICs). What about awards in tuberculosis, a key area of global health?

[Correspondence] Concerns about medical abuses against Uighurs in China

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
When footage emerged of blindfolded Uighurs being carted off to concentration camps,1 not everyone would have felt comfortable with Richard Horton's characterisation of the Chinese as friends.2 Perhaps of special relevance is the involvement of Chinese doctors in repressive abuses of power. There are convincing reports of compulsory sterilisations3 and evidence that the practice of involuntary organ donation persists.4 Mass testing of DNA combined with arbitrary detention suggest that minority populations are being treated as a human farm of potential organ donors.

[Correspondence] Deep learning and cancer biomarkers: recognising lead-time bias

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
We are concerned that Ole-Johan Skrede and colleagues1 did not take into account lead-time bias in their novel deep learning scanning algorithm for histopathology slides that predicts survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Survival is the time from cancer diagnosis to death. Before cancer screening was introduced, survival was a valid estimate of prognosis for patients with cancer. However, following the introduction of early detection through screening, survival estimates are notoriously affected by lead-time and overdiagnosis bias.

[Correspondence] Deep learning and cancer biomarkers: recognising lead-time bias – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
Michael Bretthauer and colleagues are concerned that our study1 of a deep learning system for the prediction of survival of patients with colorectal cancer did not consider potential lead-time bias. Cancers detected through screening tend to be less advanced (stage I) than those detected through symptoms.2 Early detection will also increase the survival time when measured from cancer diagnosis because the cancer would otherwise have been detected later or not at all and earlier intervention might extend life.

[Correspondence] Abrocitinib for atopic dermatitis

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
The study by Eric Simpson and colleagues1 regarding the safety and efficacy of abrocitinib monotherapy in adolescents and adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis concluded that daily oral abrocitinib is effective and well tolerated in adolescents and adults with atopic dermatitis.1

[Correspondence] Abrocitinib for atopic dermatitis – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
Shelley Uppal and colleagues suggested that it cannot be concluded from our paper1 that abrocitinib is effective and well tolerated in adolescents and adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis on the basis of the limitations of the JADE MONO-1 trial. We believe our conclusions are well supported by the design and results of the study.

[Correspondence] Using EM data to understand COVID-19 pathophysiology

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
The pathophysiology of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is not completely understood, but it is a field in COVID-19 under extensive investigation. Evidence of the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on extrapulmonary tissues is essential for understanding the disease's course and treatment.

[Correspondence] Using EM data to understand COVID-19 pathophysiology – Authors' reply

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
We fully agree with Marisa Dolhnikoff and colleagues that we should aim to understand COVID-19 pathophysiology. However, their arguments directed at our Correspondence,1 which should support their Case Report2 on ultrastructural identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patient tissue, are not convincing. As in other fields of ultrastructural research, identification of subcellular structures is made on the basis of ultrastructural features, which are characteristic for each structure.

[Articles] Machine learning-based prediction of adverse events following an acute coronary syndrome (PRAISE): a modelling study of pooled datasets

The Lancet - Sab, 16/01/2021 - 00:00
A machine learning-based approach for the identification of predictors of events after an ACS is feasible and effective. The PRAISE score showed accurate discriminative capabilities for the prediction of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and major bleeding, and might be useful to guide clinical decision making.